Hydrocephalus occurs when a buildup of excess cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is present in the cavities that contain fluid in the brain. It often increases pressure in the head.

Young / middle-aged adult symptoms

  • Difficulty waking up or remaining awake
  • Headache
  • Coordination or balance deterioration
  • Problems controlling bladder
  • Vision and cognitive skills are impaired

Senior adult symptoms

  • Coordination or balance deterioration
  • Loss of memory
  • Headache
  • Problems controlling bladder

Potential causes

  • Genetic inheritance
  • Association with developmental disorders (spina bifida, encephalocele)
  • Brain bleeding
  • Brain tumors
  • Head injuries
  • Premature birth complications (diseases, infections, hemorrhage)
  • The blocked flow of cerebrospinal fluid

Treatment options


Temporarily control intracranial pressure through drugs such as acetazolamide and furosemide

Surgical options

Minimally Invasive Procedures
  • Frameless Deep Brain Stimulator
  • Functional/Stereotaxic Surgery
  • Endoscopic Brain Surgery
  • Endoscopic Transsphenoidal
  • Resection of Complex Brain Tumor
  • Micro Vascular Decompression for Trigeminal Neuralgia
  • Gamma Knife
  • CyberKnife Brain Lab Stereotaxic Radiosurgery
  • Hemorrhagic Stroke
  • Endoscopic Port Surgery with Fiber Tracking
  • Visualase Ablation Treatment
  • Vagal Nerve Stimulation
  • Aneurysm
  • Vascular Malformation
  • CSF Shunting Procedure
  • Skull Base Surgery
  • Extended Transnasal Approaches
  • Craniotomy